8 Tips for Growing Tomatoes from Seed

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Sowing setup for starting tomatoes from seed

The season is just getting started, and already reports are coming in from gardeners having trouble growing tomatoes from seed. Fortunately, there is plenty of time to start over, which may be a good idea. Tomato seedlings emerge fast and show vigorous growth under warm, bright conditions, so there is little point in starting seeds very early.

Tomatoes are the first veggie many gardeners grow from seed, mostly in pursuit of interesting varieties that are rarely available as seedlings. To improve your shot at success, here are my top tips for growing tomatoes from seed.

Don’t sow too early – tomato seedlings shoot up fast!

1. Make a Clean Start

If you are reusing plastic cell packs, wash them well in warm, soapy water to remove old soil and accumulated salts. My favourite containers are small paper cups with several holes punched in the bottoms, because I can write the variety names on the cups. When the seedlings are ready to move to larger containers, it’s easy to peel away the softened cups and compost them.

Also use a new bag of high-quality seed-starting mix. Avoid cheap imitations, which are often the cause of seedling failure.

2. Label Your Containers

Write variety names on them with waterproof markers, or you can make labels from utility tape. Labels work better than little stakes, which wiggle around amongst the tomato roots and can be accidentally lost. I learned this one year when a gust wind toppled the table that held dozens of seedlings. Most survived with prompt repotting, but I had to guess which markers went with which tomatoes. Labels work better.

Sown dry, tomato seeds become sticky when moistened, which binds them to soil particles

3. Plant Tomato Seeds Dry

The furry coating on tomato seeds softens and gummifies when water is added, which helps the seeds stick in place among soil particles. The seed coats also release chemicals into the soil that enhance growing conditions for the soon-to-come roots.

4. Water Wisely

I use a pump spray bottle to thoroughly moisten the seed starting mix, which can take several hours. When the containers feel heavy with water, I use a pencil eraser to make shallow holes for the seeds, and cover and press them in with my finger. Then I spritz more water over the top. If you are not sure about the purity of your water, use filtered water that has been allowed to gas off overnight in an open jar.

5. Tomatoes Need Warmth and Light

Tomato seeds kept at warm room temperature and sprayed with water twice daily should sprout within a week. As soon as the seedlings break the surface, move them to bright light. A full-spectrum grow-light is ideal, but a sunny window will do provided the seedlings are watched closely to make sure they don’t dry out.

Transplant seedlings to larger containers as needed to support steady growth

6. Pot On in Stages

I like the phrase “potting on” for moving a seedling to a slightly larger container, which happens twice with my tomatoes. Soon after the first true leaf appears, I move the seedlings to larger paper cups or small plastic pots. Most of them must be potted on again three weeks later.

7. Handle Tomato Seedlings With Care

Never touch the main stem of tomato seedlings, because the juicy tissues are easily bruised, and bruises serve as entry points for the fungi that cause seedlings to rot. The main stem also can be damaged if a seedling falls over, which sometimes happens when a weak-stemmed tomato seedling becomes top-heavy with new leaves. Prevent fall-overs by sprinkling additional seed starting mix around the base of leggy seedlings, and press it in. To further support seedlings until you can repot them, prop up leaners with toothpicks or a wood skewer.

Avoid the temptation to plant little tomato seedlings in large containers, which can cause the skimpy roots to become overwhelmed by soil microorganisms. It’s better to pot on seedlings to a slightly larger container as soon as you see roots growing through the bottoms of the containers.

Always handle tomato seedlings by their leaves, not their delicate stems

8. Don’t Rush Hardening Off

Gradually expose your indoor-grown tomato seedlings to increased sun and wind. An opaque storage bin with the lid removed makes a good hardening-off chamber, or you can use a cold frame or protected plant shelf. Allow at least a week for your plants to prepare themselves for outdoor life.

With a little practice, you can expect great results growing tomatoes from seed. Tomato seedlings that enjoy stress-free lives with no serious setbacks quickly adapt to garden life, and few things are more rewarding that harvesting sun ripened tomatoes from plants you started as tiny seeds.

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Show Comments


"Thanks for another great article Barbara. Again, I've learnt something new, been inspired, been reminded of something.. and have a question :) I now actually understand why we shouldn't repot (anything really) into too big a pot. Paper cups inspire me. Pity that my supermarkets only have plastic cups. But I am recycling, and being innovative.. Been reminded only to handle all my babies by their leaves. Think mother cat with kittens. I remember with seedlings, but when I repot I seem to forget...) I ask myslef if you really spend several hours with a pump spray bottle watering your soil mix?'? :) I'll end with a confession; I've already brought some of my tomato little plants to my greenhouse. I'm not the only one here in The Netherlands who's done that, strange as it may sound. And they're looking pretty good. But needing a second repotting. And I will not forget to remember how to hold these big babies :) Gardening greetings from Veronica "
Veronica Nienhuis on Sunday 17 March 2019
"Thank you for an informative article Barbara. I have been using coir pots placed in a mini greenhouse, with a clear perspex top, to start my seedlings and must admit to a mixed success rate. Like the day that I placed them outdoors for what should have been a little spell of Australian sun. Result, 100% kill! Other sowings have been more successful but your article mentions changing the seed raising mix, which I haven't been doing, after a failure, and that probably accounts for some other problems. I will rectify this in the coming season. I would like to ask your opinion on the coir pots because on many an occasion, when I have pulled the spent plants at seasons end, part of the pot, sometimes most of the pot, is still around the plant stem. I thought that they were supposed to degrade. I would also like your opinion on sowing tomato seedlings " up to the lowest leaves " when planting out. On many occasions my seedlings grow awfully "leggy " because, I've been told, of not enough daylight. Can these plants be sown "up to the lowest leaves" ? "
Ken Gray on Saturday 13 July 2019
"A couple of my seedling tomatoe plants look like they are shrivelling up. What could be wrong? I water with w weak plant food....could my mixture be too strong?"
Mavis on Friday 24 April 2020
"Hi, I have followed your instructions. Now I have a small tomato garden. I come back here to say thank you!"
Michael on Friday 1 May 2020
"That's a great idea. I will have a tomato garden. "
Roses on Monday 18 May 2020
"I am currently growing tomato plants from the seeds harvested from last year's tomatoes that we grew from plants purchased. They had blossom end rot but this time I've used egg shells to try and prevent that. The plants are beautiful and strong. My question is, can I harvest seeds from this year's toms to grow next year and still keep doing that without ever buying seeds or plants? Many thanks."
Viv on Friday 12 June 2020
" I lost blossom end root when we started rinsing all our milk bottles at the base of our tomato plants and diluting expired milk and placing it below on the tomato plants.It has made a huge difference and I suspect its a calcium deficiency.It did not increase the size of the tomatoes."
Cathy on Sunday 14 March 2021
"I followed this and now have 27 tomato plants , all in large pots , growing outside. My husband calls it tomato town .So far they are all looking very healthy .Thanks for all the tips."
Gaynor on Sunday 14 November 2021
"Answers from some of the questions above?"
Ron S on Thursday 20 April 2023
"Sorry I did not get the memo about these excellent questions. First, to Ken who asks about using coir pots to grow tomatoes and transplanting depth. A good use for renewable coconut hull fiber, coir pots hold moisture well and make it easy to set out plants with minimal root disturbance. At the same time, coir pots are slow to degrade and can form a barrier to growing roots. To keep this from happening, use a pair of scissors or sharp knife to make slits in the sides and bottom of the pots when transplanting. As long as the plants are performing well, don’t worry if you still see bits of coir pot at the end of the season. Where summers are hot, it is standard practice to plant tomatoes deep, up to the third set of leaves, which are pinched off. Roots emerge from the buried section of the stem, enhancing the drought resistance of the plants. Good luck! "
Barbara Pleasant on Sunday 23 April 2023
"To Mavis, who has seedlings that are mysteriously dying. Could it be too much plant food? Possibly, but the most common cause of seedling collapse is damping off, a disease complex of soil-borne fungi that invade tender roots and stems. Affected plants cannot be saved, so you may need to start over. Tomatoes started later in spring grow faster and have fewer problems with damping off."
Barbara Pleasant on Sunday 23 April 2023
"To Viv, you can save and replant seeds from any tomato. If you keep saving seed from the same variety every season, after eight generations you have created your own variety! It is possible that the strain could lose quality, however, because of unstable hybrid parentage. Keep trying new varieties just in case. "
Barbara Pleasant on Sunday 23 April 2023
"I plant deep in greenhouse as suggested, works well, but before planting I place a small handful of crushed eggshells and old banana skins in hole first, a handful of soil then plant, apparently the calcium from eggshells and potassium from bananas feed the tomatoe plant giving a better crop? I would like to hear other comments on this practice, I am in Somerset, England."
Paul on Wednesday 28 February 2024

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